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TCP/IP Administration and Troubleshooting Utilities and Protocols
The first two large subsections of
large section devoted to TCP/IP applications and application protocols
discussed file and message transfer applications, and interactive and
remote access applications, respectively. These are the classical applications
that are most often employed by the users of TCP/IP internetworks. Since
they are the means by which users communicate, they can be considered
in some ways the raison dêtre of TCP/IP and the
In contrast, this third subsection
is a bit different. It doesnt describe applications designed for
end-users. Rather, it discusses a set of TCP/IP troubleshooting utilities
and protocols, which are normally the province of internetwork administrators.
Even though millions of people use TCP/IP every day without even knowing
that these applications existmuch less how they workthey
are critically important to those who maintain TCP/IP internetworks.
Since many of you are studying TCP/IP so that you can implement and
administer this technology, understanding how these applications work
is well worth your time.
In this section I provide an overview
description of a number of software utilities that are commonly employed
to help set up, configure and maintain TCP/IP internetworks. These programs
allow a network administrator to perform functions such as checking
the identity of a host; verifying connectivity between two hosts; checking
the path of routers between devices; examining the configuration of
a computer; looking up a DNS domain name; and much more.
Note: The goal of this section is to provide explanations of the general purpose and function of troubleshooting utilities, so you will know how they can help you manage TCP/IP networks. As part of these descriptions, I demonstrate the typical syntax used to invoke each utility in both UNIX and Windows. While I have tried to be quite complete in these depictions, they are intended only to give you a better idea of what these programs can dothis section should not be considered a reference manual for these utilities. Due to variations in software implementations, please consult your operating system documentation for the details on exactly how each program should be used on your own network. On Windows systems, try <program> /? to see the syntax of the program; on UNIX/Linux try man <program>.
Background Information: Many of the software tools described in this section are designed to manage the operation of other TCP/IP protocols, such as the Internet Protocol, Domain Name System or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. To fully appreciate how these utilities work, you need to understand the basics of these and other key TCP/IP protocols. In particular, a number of the utilities discussed here communicate use ICMP messages, so I would recommend familiarity with ICMP before proceeding.
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The TCP/IP Guide (http://www.TCPIPGuide.com)
Version 3.0 - Version Date: September 20, 2005
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