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Table Of Contents  The TCP/IP Guide
 9  TCP/IP Lower-Layer (Interface, Internet and Transport) Protocols (OSI Layers 2, 3 and 4)
      9  TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols
           9  Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
                9  TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
                     9  TCP Basic Operation: Connection Establishment, Management and Termination

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TCP Connection Establishment Process: The "Three-Way Handshake"
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TCP Connection Management and Problem Handling, the Connection Reset Function, and TCP "Keepalives"
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TCP Connection Establishment Sequence Number Synchronization and Parameter Exchange
(Page 1 of 3)

The TCP three-way handshake describes the mechanism of message exchange that allows a pair of TCP devices to move from a closed state to a ready-to-use, established connection. Connection establishment is about more than just passing messages between devices to establish communication. The TCP layers on the devices must also exchange information about the sequence numbers each device wants to use for its first data transmission, as well as parameters that will control how the connection operates. The former of these two data exchange functions is usually called sequence number synchronization, and is such an important part of connection establishment that the messages that each device sends to start the connection are called SYN (synchronization) messages.

You may recall from the TCP fundamentals section that TCP refers to each byte of data individually, and uses sequence numbers to keep track of which bytes have been sent and received. Since each byte has a sequence number, we can acknowledge each byte, or more efficiently, use a single number to acknowledge a range of bytes received.

The Problem With Starting Every Connection Using the Same Sequence Number

In the example I gave in the topic describing the sliding windows system, I assumed for “simplicity” (ha ha, was that simple?) that each device would start a connection by giving the first byte of data sent sequence number 1. A valid question is, why wouldn't we always just start off each TCP connection by sending the first byte of data with a sequence number of 1? The sequence numbers are arbitrary, after all, and this is the simplest method.

In an ideal world, this would probably work, but we don't live in an ideal world. J The problem with starting off each connection with a sequence number of 1 is that it introduces the possibility of segments from different connections getting mixed up. Suppose we established a TCP connection and sent a segment containing bytes 1 through 30. However, there was a problem with the internetwork that caused this segment to be delayed, and eventually, the TCP connection itself to be terminated. We then started up a new connection and again used a starting sequence number of 1. As soon as this new connection was started, however, the old segment with bytes labeled 1 to 30 showed up. The other device would erroneously think those bytes were part of the new connection.

This is but one of several similar problems that can occur. To avoid them, each TCP device, at the time a connection is initiated, chooses a 32-bit initial sequence number (ISN) for the connection. Each device has its own ISN, and they will normally not be the same.

Selecting the Initial Sequence Number

Traditionally, each device chose the ISN by making use of a timed counter, like a clock of sorts, that was incremented every 4 microseconds. This counter was initialized when TCP started up and then its value increased by 1 every 4 microseconds until it reached the largest 32-bit value possible (4,294,967,295) at which point it “wrapped around” to 0 and resumed incrementing. Any time a new connection is set up, the ISN was taken from the current value of this timer. Since it takes over 4 hours to count from 0 to 4,294,967,295 at 4 microseconds per increment, this virtually assured that each connection will not conflict with any previous ones.

One issue with this method is that it makes ISNs predictable. A malicious person could write code to analyze ISNs and then predict the ISN of a subsequent TCP connection based on the ISNs used in earlier ones. This represents a security risk, which has been exploited in the past (such as in the case of the famous Mitnick attack). To defeat this, implementations now use a random number in their ISN selection process.

Previous Topic/Section
TCP Connection Establishment Process: The "Three-Way Handshake"
Previous Page
Pages in Current Topic/Section
Next Page
TCP Connection Management and Problem Handling, the Connection Reset Function, and TCP "Keepalives"
Next Topic/Section

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Version 3.0 - Version Date: September 20, 2005

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